(updated June 2010)

When writing an assignment you must acknowledge the use of other peoples' work whether it be a book, newspaper article, video, web site, or CD ROM, etc.
This guideline is based on the Harvard System of referencing and includes:

Intext Referencing
For any unanswered queries do not hesitate to see the library staff.

What is a Bibliography?
A Bibliography is a list of all material used in the preparation of your assignment. It is usually in alphabetical order of author's surname. If a resource has no author, list it in alphabetical order by the first 3 letters of the title, ignoring the words A, and The at the beginning of a title.
Indent the second or third line (if any) by five spaces.
Page numbers:
p. for one page
pp. for multiple pages

HINTS: Remember to write down the bibliographic details of a resource as you use it. Don't wait until the end of the assignment, when you have returned some of the resources, and think 'which book did I use? Where is it?'

Rules and examples for citing different materials:


Author's surname, author's first name or initials. Publication date,Title - in italics or underlined, Publisher, Place of Publication


Author - one
Denning, A. 1994, The craft of woodcarving, Sandstone, London
Authors - multiple
Yarwood, P., White, P. & West, L. 1997, Design and communication, Hodder, New York

Edited work
Smith, T. ed. 1989, Cooking, 2nd ed. Helm, Melbourne

No author
Artists in the news 1996, Prion : New York.

Government publication
Australian Bureau of Statistics 1994, Health Australia. Cat. No. 883.0. ABS, Canberra.

Government report
Commission of Inquiry into Homelessness 1998, Homelessness in Australia, First Main Report
(S.A. Allan, Chairman). AGPS : Canberra.


'Title of article' Publication date, Title of encyclopedia - underlined or in italics, Volume, Publisher, Place of publication, Volume, page number.

'Minerals in Australia' 1996, The World Book encyclopedia, vol. 6, World Book, Sydney, p. 308.


Author, Publication date - in brackets, 'Title of article',Title of periodical - underlined, Volume, Number,Page number.

AuthorJohnson, S. (1996) 'Cloning', New Scientist, vol. 161, no. 2134, pp. 42-46. No volume or number
Besley, T. (1996) 'Diabetes', Health Australia, May, pp. 36-39.

No author
'Efficient low cost solar energy' (1993) Search, vol. 25, p. 309.

A risky business (1998) Alcohol Committee of New South Wales : Sydney.


Author. Publication date - in brackets 'Title of article', Title of newspaper - underlined, Date, page number
 Shaw, Peter (1996) 'Mining shares drop', The Age, 31 August, p. 1.

Audio Visual Materials

Title - underlined

Publication date - in brackets

[Name of media]

Publisher : Place of publication.
Diet and health (1997) [Digital video recording] Classroom Videos : Melbourne.

Television program
Euthanasia (1998) Viewed: 9 Aug. 1999, ABC Television.

INTERNETPlease note that material available on the Internet varies greatly in its quality and accuracy, therefore students should always carefully evaluate the material.
Author (if available) 'Title of the page' viewed day month year, full URL in

Fox, T. 'How to grow roses', viewed 12 August 2012, <>
No author and no date
'Gun laws : the gun debate', viewed 23 August 2012, <>

Pictures, images and photographs from the internet
Authors name if known, (if not use title of image)
(Year), Title of image, descritpion, viewed day month year, < Url>

Tangy Lemon Curd Tart, 2012, photograph, viewed 3rd June 2012

Forms of personal communication include consultation personally with someone by letter, telephone, fax or interview. You do not have to include these in your bibliography but you must include a reference to your source whilst writing your assignment (intext referencing). Examples:
Whilst talking to Mr Shiffer on the 20th August 1997 it became apparent that.............
In an interview given (Shiffer, M. 1997, pers. communication, 20th August) it was stated that..............

If you use a direct quote or paraphrase (indirect quote) the words of an author you must acknowledge that you are using someone else's ideas.
Follow these steps when using a direct quote or paraphrasing:

Name the author you are quoting or paraphrasing

Date of publication

Page number if appropriate

are written exactly as they appear in the work, in inverted commas:
"It is well known that schizophrenia is inherited. Children of schizophrenic parents are more likely to develop this psychosis than are children of nonschizophrenic parents." (Yussen, 1988, p. 90)
Short quotes (less than 30 words) should be incorporated into your sentence.
Long quotes (more than 30 words) should be indented.

Indirect Quotes do not require "inverted commas" because you are not quoting directly; you are summarising or paraphrasing the ideas into your own words:
Yussen (1988, p. 90) states that children of schizophrenic parents are more likely to inherit schizophrenia than children of nonshizophrenic parents.

The following manuals were consulted in the preparation of this guide:
University of South Australia (2010) The Harvard Author - date referencing system [Online] Available:
[Accessed 10th June 2010]

Box Hill Institute of Tafe (2010) Harvard referencing for media, design and Arts students [Online] Available:
[Accessed 10th June 2010]





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