A GUIDE TO WRITING A BIBLIOGRAPHY USING THE HARVARD SYSTEM
(updated June 2010)
When writing an assignment you must acknowledge the use of other peoples' work whether it be a book, newspaper article, video, web site, or CD ROM, etc.
This guideline is based on the Harvard System of referencing and includes:
What is a Bibliography?
A Bibliography is a list of all material used in the preparation of your assignment. It is usually in alphabetical order of author's surname. If a resource has no author, list it in alphabetical order by the first 3 letters of the title, ignoring the words A, and The at the beginning of a title. Indent the second or third line (if any) by five spaces.
p. for one page
pp. for multiple pages
HINTS: Remember to write down the bibliographic details of a resource as you use it. Don't wait until the end of the assignment, when you have returned some of the resources, and think 'which book did I use? Where is it?'
Rules and examples for citing different materials:
|Author's surname, author's first name or initials. Publication date,Title - in italics or underlined, Publisher, Place of Publication|
Denning, A. 1994, The craft of woodcarving, Sandstone, London Authors - multiple
Yarwood, P., White, P. & West, L. 1997, Design and communication, Hodder, New York
Smith, T. ed. 1989, Cooking, 2nd ed. Helm, Melbourne
Artists in the news 1996, Prion : New York.
Australian Bureau of Statistics 1994, Health Australia. Cat. No. 883.0. ABS, Canberra.
Commission of Inquiry into Homelessness 1998, Homelessness in Australia, First Main Report
(S.A. Allan, Chairman). AGPS : Canberra.
ENCYCLOPEDIA OR ARTICLE IN A MULTI-VOLUME BOOK
|'Title of article' Publication date,
Title of encyclopedia - underlined or in italics, Volume, Publisher, Place of
publication, Volume, page number. |
'Minerals in Australia' 1996, The World Book encyclopedia, vol. 6, World Book, Sydney, p. 308.
|AuthorJohnson, S. (1996) 'Cloning', New Scientist, vol. 161, no. 2134, pp. 42-46. No volume or number |
Besley, T. (1996) 'Diabetes', Health Australia, May, pp. 36-39.
'Efficient low cost solar energy' (1993) Search, vol. 25, p. 309.
A risky business (1998) Alcohol Committee of New South Wales : Sydney.
Audio Visual Materials
Diet and health (1997) [Digital video recording] Classroom Videos : Melbourne.
Euthanasia (1998) Viewed: 9 Aug. 1999, ABC Television.
INTERNETPlease note that material available on the Internet varies greatly in its quality and accuracy, therefore students should always carefully evaluate the material.
Author (if available) 'Title of the page' viewed day month year, full URL in
Fox, T. 'How to grow roses', viewed 12 August 2012, <http:www.gardenbed.com.au>
No author and no date
'Gun laws : the gun debate', viewed 23 August 2012, <http://www.gun.vic.gov.au.html>
Pictures, images and photographs from the internet
Authors name if known, (if not use title of image)
(Year), Title of image, descritpion, viewed day month year, < Url>
Tangy Lemon Curd Tart, 2012, photograph, viewed 3rd June 2012
Forms of personal communication include consultation personally with someone by letter, telephone, fax or interview. You do not have to include these in your bibliography but you must include a reference to your source whilst writing your assignment (intext referencing). Examples:
Whilst talking to Mr Shiffer on the 20th August 1997 it became apparent that.............
In an interview given (Shiffer, M. 1997, pers. communication, 20th August) it was stated that..............
If you use a direct quote or paraphrase (indirect quote) the words of an author you must acknowledge that you are using someone else's ideas.
Follow these steps when using a direct quote or paraphrasing:
DIRECT QUOTES are written exactly as they appear in the work, in inverted commas:
"It is well known that schizophrenia is inherited. Children of schizophrenic parents are more likely to develop this psychosis than are children of nonschizophrenic parents." (Yussen, 1988, p. 90) Short quotes (less than 30 words) should be incorporated into your sentence.
Long quotes (more than 30 words) should be indented.
Indirect Quotes do not require "inverted commas" because you are not quoting directly; you are summarising or paraphrasing the ideas into your own words:
Yussen (1988, p. 90) states that children of schizophrenic parents are more likely to inherit schizophrenia than children of nonshizophrenic parents.
The following manuals were consulted in the preparation of this guide:
University of South Australia (2010) The Harvard Author - date referencing system [Online] Available: http://www.unisa.edu.au/ltu/students/study/reference/harvard.pdf
[Accessed 10th June 2010]
Box Hill Institute of Tafe (2010) Harvard referencing for media, design and Arts students [Online] Available: http://www.bhtafe.edu.au/content.php?=19391&sid=135139
[Accessed 10th June 2010]